IMPORTANT NAMES AND PLACES

IMPORTANT NAMES AND PLACES

Abdullah bin Jahsh:  the Muslim warrior who carried out the first Muslim raid (at Nakhla) on Muhammad’s orders

Abdullah bin Salam:  a Jewish rabbi who became an early convert to Islam

Abdullah bin Ubayy:  a leader of the “Hypocrites,” insincere Muslims who opposed Muhammad

Abu’Afak:  a poet who mocked Muhammad in his verses and was assassinated on Muhammad’s orders

Abu Bakr:   One of Muhammad’s earliest companions and his successor as leader of the Muslims (caliph)

Abu Jahl:  A leader of the pagan Quraysh who opposed Muhammad

Abu Lahab:  Muhammad’s uncle, who opposed him and was cursed in the Qur’an (111:1-5)

Abu Sufyan:  A leader of the pagan Quraysh who opposed Muhammad, but was later converted to Islam

Aisha:  Muhammad’s favorite wife; he married her when she was six and consummated the marriage when she was nine

Al-‘Aqaba:  A city where the early Muslims pledged fealty to Muhammad

Al-Lat:  One of the goddesses worshipped by the pagan Quraysh

Al-‘Uzza:  One of the goddesses worshipped by the pagan Quraysh

Ali:  Muhammad’s son-in-law, whom Shi’ite Muslims regard as his rightful successor; he reigned briefly as the fourth caliph, after Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman

Asma bint Marwan:  A poetess who mocked Muhammad in her verses and was assassinated on Muhammad’s orders

Badr:  An Arabian town about 80 miles from Medina where the Muslims won their first great military victory, against the Quraysh in 624

Bahira:  A Syrian Christian monk who, according to Islamic tradition, recognized the boy Muhammad as a prophet

Bukhari:  Ninth-century collector of traditions about Muhammad that Muslims generally consider reliable

Buraq:  The winged horse with a human head that is supposed to have carried Muhammad from Mecca to Jerusalem and thence to Paradise on his Night Journey

Chosroes: The Persian emperor in Muhammad’s day, whom Muhammad called to Islam

Gabriel:  The angel who is supposed to have delivered Allah’s revelations to Muhammad

Ghatafan:  The pagan Arabian tribe that, along with the Quraysh, laid siege to Medina in the Battle of the Trench

Hafsa:  One of Muhammad’s wives

Heraclius:  The Byzantine emperor in Muhammad’s day, whom Muhammad called to Islam

Hudaybiyya:  A town about nine miles from Mecca where Muhammad concluded a treaty with the Quraysh

Hunayn:  A dry riverbed near Mecca where Muhammad defeated the last large-scale resistance to him in Arabia

Ibn Ishaq:  Muhammad’s first biographer (704-773)

Ibn Sa’d:  An early compiler of biographical traditions about Muhammad (d. 845)

Jerusalem:  The city from which Muhammad is supposed to have ascended to Paradise on his Night Journey

Ka’b bin Al-Ashraf:  A Jewish poet who mocked Muhammad in his verses and was assassinated on Muhammad’s orders

Ka’bah:  A shrine and place of pilgrimage in Mecca that Muhammad emptied of its idols and transformed into a site for Islamic pilgrimage

Khadija:  Muhammad’s first wife and first convert

Kahlid bin al-Walid:  A renowned Muslim warrior

Khaybar:  An oasis near Medina which Muhammad attacked, exiling the Jews who inhabited it

Kinana ibn Rabi:  A Jewish leader at Khaybar who was tortured and killed on Muhammad’s orders for refusing to disclose the location of treasure

Manat:  One of the goddesses worshipped by the pagan Quraysh

Mary the Copt:  Muhammad’s concubine and mother of his son Ibrahim, who died in infancy

Mecca:  Muhammad’s birthplace; a principal city for trade and pilgrimage in pre-Islamic Arabia

Medina:  An Arabian city north of Mecca, in which Muhammad first became a political and military leader after his flight there (Hijra)

Muhammad:  the prophet of Islam (570-632)

Muhammad bin Maslama:  An early Muslim who carried out several assassinations on Muhammad’s orders

Nadir:  A Jewish tribe of Medina; Muhammad besieged and exiled them

Nakhla:  An Arabian town where the Muslims carried out their first military raid against the Quraysh

Qaynuqa:   A Jewish tribe of Medina; Muhammad besieged and exiled them

Quraysh:  The pagan Arabs of Mecca; Muhammad belonged to this tribe, but they rejected his prophetic message

Qurayzah:  A Jewish tribe of Medina; Muhammad supervised their massacre after they betrayed an alliance with the Muslims

Sa’d bin Mu’adh:  The Muslim warrior who pronounced sentence, with Muhammad’s permission, against the Qurayzah tribe

Safiyya bint Huyayy:  Wife of Kinana ibn Rabi; Muhammad took her as his own wife after killing Kinana

Tabuk:  A northwestern Arabian city to which Muhammad led an expedition against the Byzantines

Ta’if:  A city south of Mecca that initially rejected Muhammad and was later conquered by the Muslims

Uhud:  A mountain near Mecca where the Quraysh defeated the Muslims after the Battle of Badr

Umar:  One of Muhammad’s earliest companions and the successor of Abu Bakr as leader of the Muslims (caliph)

Waraqa:  Khadija’s uncle and a Christian priest; he is supposed to have confirmed Muhammad’s prophetic status

Zayd bin Haritha:  Muhammad’s adopted son and the first husband of zaynab bint Jahsh

Zaynab bint Jahsh: Muhammad’s daughter-in-law, whom he subsequently married by what he represented as a command of Allah